This page is part of François Nespola's bioraphy, Nice 1858-1911,click here to see the intro and here to see the table of contents
A family split between France and Italy
François was born in Nice in 1858. He is the second "niçois" citisen of his family. His parents and elder sister were all born in Albenga or around, on the territory of the former Republic of Genoa.
Why to make this distinction between François and his family? In 1858, aren't they all sardinian?
Actually, in 1858, Nice and Albenga are both parts of the Kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia.
But History allows to understand better the strong identity of Nice and also its rivalry with the port of Genoa.
And later , in 1860 with the incorporation of Nice to France, he became French and his relatives "immigrated" Italians. Documents show certain contempt for these Italians: deformed names, registers of immigration …
Hum, it's not very clear ! Let us have some brief summary
In 1770, Nice County, States of Savoy and Genoa Republica
Savoy was part of States of Savoy Piémont Sardaigne. Nice was the only sea front of these states. Westward, Genoa Republica was a huge maritime power.
This map was drawned in 1770.
The river the Var serves as border between France and the States of Savoy. On the West, The french department of Var, which took the name of the river and contains the West of the department of the current Alpes-Maritimes: with Cannes, Grasse and Saint-Laurent–du-Var. On the East, Nice County, part of the States of Savoy.
Farther on East, the Republic of Genoa where from come the ancestors of François Nespola.
In 1770, the Republic of Genoa still exists, it incorporate Corsica and greek islands and Crimée settlements.
1797- 1814, Napoleon defines a new political map
From 1797, with Napoleon's italian campaign, as for Nice, Genoa's political structure changed a lot :
- 1797, République Ligure, based in Genoa
- 1805, incorporated to French Empire Français as Nice
- 1815, incorporated to States of Savoy Piémont Sardaigne, as Nice
- 1860, incorporated to Kingdom of Italy
In François Nespola's birth, in 1858, Nice and Albenga are a part of States of Piedmont-Sardinia
His parents Charles Nespola and Catherine Vignola were born to Albenga on 1825 - 1826, they probably got married there and his elder sister Constance was born in Campochina close to Albenga in 1852. Then they moved to Nice West, close to the river "le Var", in Saint-Augustin area where their second child Joseph Michel was born in 1856. François and his family were all born Sardinian.
In 1860, Joseph et François became french. The parents an Constance became Italians.
Nice was incorporated to France. The Republic of Genoa was first sardinian in 1859, then included in Kingdom of Italy after 1860.
By the Treaty of Turin on March 24th, 1860, Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy gives up Savoy and the County of Nice in exchange for the support of Napoleon III for the creation of the kingdom of Italy of which Victor Emmanuel II becomes the first king in 1861.
The population is consulted by plebiscite on April 22-23rd and give its agreement.
The French imperial troops enter Nice on June 10th and the fastening is celebrated. On this occasion, Napoleon III and his wife live in the villa of palm trees ( the big current cedars), one of the big properties of the district Sainte Hélène(Saint Helena).
Planned articles are going to be displayed online as one goes along, click here to see the table of contents